Wiktionary कडून
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Welcome to the मराठी Marathi-language Wiktionary, a collaborative project to produce a free, multilingual dictionary with definitions, etymologies, pronunciations, sample quotations, synonyms, antonyms and translations. Wiktionary is the lexical companion to the open-content encyclopedia Wikipedia. In this English edition, started on December 12, 2002, we currently have 377,862 entries in 389 languages. Learn how to start a page, how to edit entries, experiment in the sandbox and visit our Community Portal to see how you can participate in the development of Wiktionary. The content of Wiktionary is covered by the GNU Free Documentation License; see Wiktionary copyrights for details.


Wiktionary is, above all, a multilingual dictionary; it is not an encyclopedia. Details can be found on criteria for inclusion. See the Help page and layout conventions for additional help. Highlights of Wiktionary include our weekly translations and the phrase book. To find out how to contribute, check out the lists of things to do and the requested articles.

साचा:shortcut Wiktionary is an online dictionary and, as a means to that end, also an online community. Therefore, there are certain things that Wiktionary is not.

What Wiktionary is not[संपादन]

  1. Wiktionary is not an encyclopedia, a genealogy database, or an atlas; that is, it is not an in-depth collection of factual information, or of data about places and people. If you are looking for an encyclopedia, try Wikipedia. Wiktionary articles are about words. A Wiktionary entry should focus on matters of language and wordsmithing: spelling, pronunciation, etymology, translation, usage, quotationsसाचा:, and links to related words and concepts.
  2. Wiktionary is not paper. Thus, Wiktionary effectively has no size limits, can include links, can be more timely, etc. It also means that the style and length of writing appropriate for paper may not be appropriate here.
  3. Wiktionary is not a soapbox, chatroomसाचा:, or discussion forum.
  4. Wiktionary is neither a mirror nor a repository of links, imagesसाचा:, or media files. All content added to Wiktionary may be edited mercilessly to be included on the site.
  5. Wiktionary is not a free wiki host or webspace provider. You may not host your own website at Wiktionary. If you are interested in using the wiki technology for a collaborative effort on anything other than writing a dictionary of all words in all languages, even if it is just a single page, there are many sites that provide wiki hosting (free or for money). You can even install wiki software on your server.
  6. Wiktionary is not a battlefield. Every user is expected to interact with others civilly, calmly and in a spirit of cooperation. Do not insult, harass or intimidate those with whom you have a disagreement. Rather, approach the matter in an intelligent manner, and engage in polite discussion. Do not create or edit articles just to prove a point. Do not make legal or other threats against Wiktionary, Wiktionariansसाचा:, or the Wikimedia Foundation. Threats are not tolerated and may result in a ban.
  7. Wiktionary is not censored for the 'protection of minors' (content-rated). First, anyone can edit an article and the results are displayed instantaneously, so we cannot guarantee that a child will see or read nothing objectionable. Second, Wiktionary has no organized system for the removal of material that might be thought likely to harm minors. However, articles can be, and are, censored by consensus.

साचा:Policy-SO As an international dictionary, Wiktionary is intended to include “all words in all languages”. साचा:shortcut

General rule[संपादन]

A term should be included if it's likely that someone would run across it and want to know what it means. This in turn leads to the somewhat more formal guideline of including a term if it is attested and idiomatic.

“Terms” to be broadly interpreted[संपादन]

A term need not be limited to a single word in the usual sense. Any of these are also acceptable:


“Attested” means verified through

  1. Clearly widespread use,
  2. Usage in a well-known work,
  3. Appearance in a refereed academic journal, or
  4. Usage in permanently recorded media, conveying meaning, in at least three independent instances spanning at least a year.

Where possible, it is better to cite sources that are likely to remain easily accessible over time, so that someone referring to Wiktionary years from now is likely to be able to find the original source. As Wiktionary is an online dictionary, this naturally favors media such as blogs and usenet groups, which are durably archived by Google. Print media such as books and magazines will also do, particularly if their contents are indexed online. Other recorded media such as audio and video are also acceptable, provided they are of verifiable origin and are durably archived. When citing a quotation from a book, please include the ISBN.

Conveying meaning[संपादन]

See use-mention distinction.

This filters out appearance in raw word lists, commentary on the form of a word, such as “The word ‘foo’ has three letters,” lone definitions, and made-up examples of how a word might be used. For example, an appearance in someone’s online dictionary is suggestive, but it does not show the word actually used to convey meaning. On the other hand, a sentence like “They raised the jib (a small sail forward of the mainsail) in order to get the most out of the light wind,” appearing in an account of a sailboat race, would be fine. It happens to contain a definition, but the word is also used for its meaning.


This is meant to exclude multiple references that draw on each other. Where Wikipedia has an article on a given subject, and that article is mirrored by an external site the use of certain words on the mirror site would not be independent. It is quite common to find that material on one site is readily traced to another. Similarly, the same quote will often occur verbatim in separate sources. While the sources may be independent of each other, the usages in question are clearly not.

The presumption is that if a term is only used in a narrow community, there is no need to refer to a general dictionary such as this one to find its meaning.

Spanning at least a year[संपादन]

This is meant to filter out words that may appear and see brief use, but then never be used again. The one-year threshold is somewhat arbitrary, but appears to work well in practice.


An expression is “idiomatic” if its full meaning cannot be easily derived from the meaning of its separate components.

For example, this is a door is not idiomatic, but shut up and red herring are.

Compounds are generally idiomatic, even when the meaning can be clearly expressed in terms of the parts. The reason is that the parts often have several possible senses, but the compound is often restricted to only some combinations of them.

For example, mega- can denote either a million (or 220) of something or simply a very large or prominent instance of something. Similarly star might mean a celestial object or a celebrity. But megastar means "a very prominent celebrity", not "a million celebrities" or "a million celestial objects", and only rarely "a very large celestial object" (capitalized, it is also a brand name in amateur astronomy).

This rule must be applied carefully and is somewhat subjective. For example bank has several senses and parking lot has an idiomatic sense of "large traffic jam". However bank parking lot can't possibly mean "to do financial transactions large traffic jam". With such clearly wrong interpretations weeded out, the remaining choices are "place to park cars for any of several kinds of business" or "place to park cars by, for or on a river bank or similar (as opposed to, say, the hill parking lot)." The whole phrase could plausibly mean either, depending on context (though the first is likely far more common), and so the phrase is not idiomatic.

This criterion is sometimes referred to as the fried egg test, as a fried egg generally means an egg (and generally a chicken egg or similar) fried in a particular way. It generally doesn't denote a scrambled egg, which is nonetheless cooked by frying.

See Wiktionary:List of idioms that survived RFD for other exmples. However, many idioms are clearly idiomatic, for example red herring. These tests are invoked only in discussion of unclear cases.

Misspellings, common misspellings and variant spellings[संपादन]

There is no simple hard and fast rule, particularly in English, for determining whether a particular spelling is “correct”. A person defending a disputed spelling should be prepared to support his view with references. Published grammars and style guides can be useful in that regard, as can statistics concerning the prevalence of various forms.

Most simple typos are much rarer than the most frequent spellings. Some words, however, are frequently misspelled. For example occurred is often spelled with only one c or only one r, but only occurred is considered correct. The misspellings may well merit entries.

It is important to remember that most languages, including English, do not have an academy to establish rules of usage, and thus may be prone to uncertain spellings. This problem is less frequent, though not unknown, in languages such as Spanish where spelling may have legal support in some countries.

Regional or historical variations are not misspellings. For example, there are well-known differences between British and American spelling. A spelling considered incorrect in one region may not occur at all in another, and may even dominate in yet another.


Once it is decided that a misspelling is of sufficient importance to merit its own page the formatting of such a page should not be particularly problematical. The usual language and part of speech headings can be used, followed by this simple entry:

# {{misspelling of|[[...]]}}

An additional section explaining why the term is a misspelling should be considered optional.


Although it is not forbidden, there is no particular need to include completely regular inflections such as cameras or asked. To the extent that they are present, they should indicate what inflection is intended and link to the stem form, and should not merely redirect.

Irregular forms such as geese and were should have their own entries, because people unfamiliar with the irregularity will look for them under the inflected form. Inflected forms — whether regular or irregular — with idiomatic meanings, such as blues or smitten, should have their own entries, with the predictable meanings distinguished from the idiomatic.

Idiomatic phrases[संपादन]

Many phrases take several forms. It is not necessary to include every conceivable variant. When present, minor variants should simply redirect to the main entry. For the main entry, prefer the most generic form, based on the following principles:


Prefer the generic personal pronoun, one or one’s. Thus, feel one’s oats is preferable to feel his oats. Use of other personal pronouns, especially in the singular, should be avoided except where they are essential to the meaning.


Omit an initial article unless it makes a difference in the meaning. E.g., cat’s pajamas instead of the cat’s pajamas.


Use the infinitive form of the verb (but without “to”) for the principal verb of a verbal phrase. Thus for the saying It’s raining cats and dogs, or It was raining cats and dogs, or I think it’s going to rain cats and dogs any minute now, or It’s rained cats and dogs for the last week solid the entry should be (and is) under rain cats and dogs. The other variants are derived by the usual rules of grammar (including the use of it with weather terms and other impersonal verbs).


Proverbs that are whole sentences should begin with a capital letter. For example: You can't judge a book by its cover.

Languages to include[संपादन]

Natural languages[संपादन]

All natural languages are acceptable. However, it is important to note that the question of whether a proposed language is considered a living language, or a dialect of or alternate name for another language is inherently subjective in some cases, and either designation may have political overtones.

Constructed languages[संपादन]

Constructed languages have not developed naturally, but are the product of conscious effort in the fulfillment of some purpose. In general, terms in such languages, particularly languages associated with works of fiction, do not meet the basic requirement that one might run across them and want to know the meaning of their words, since they are only used in a narrow context in which further material on the language is readily available. There are specific exceptions to this general rule, listed below, based on consensus of the Wiktionary community. Esperanto, in particular, is a living language with a sizeable community of fluent speakers, and even some native speakers!

Some individual terms from constructed languages may have been adopted into other languages. These should be treated as terms in the adoptive language, and the origin noted in the etymology, regardless of whether the language as a whole is considered to meet the criteria for inclusion.

  • There is consensus that languages whose origin and use are restricted to one or more related literary works and its fans do not merit inclusion as entries or translations in the main namespace. They may merit lexicons in the Appendix namespace. The applicable ISO 639-3 languages are Klingon, Orcish, Quenya, and Sindarin.

Even when rejected for treatment as a language for purposes of this Wiktionary, a single article about the name of that language may be acceptable.

Reconstructed languages[संपादन]

Terms in reconstructed languages such as Proto-Indo-European do not meet the criteria for inclusion. They may be entered in appendices, and referred to from etymological sections. See Wiktionary:Reconstructed terms.



From time to time, various parties will insert material into Wiktionary which clearly has nothing to do with Wiktionary's purpose or practices. Such activity is considered vandalism and will be undone at the first opportunity. If the vandalism consists of an edit to an existing page, that edit will be reverted. If the vandalism consists of a new article, that article will be removed. This is done at the discretion of the administrators and does not require discussion, even if the vandalism consists of a new article for a term which would otherwise meet these criteria but has not yet been entered legitimately.


The designation protologism is for terms defined in the hopes that they will be used, but which are not actually in wide use. These are listed on Wiktionary:List of protologisms, and should not be given their own separate entries.

see discussion for exclusion of the words in lists - Protologisms, Wikisaurus, concordances etc, from application of the CFI to each individual listed word.


There is a separate set of criteria for inclusion of words in a Wikisaurus page - see Wiktionary:Wikisaurus/criteria

Wiktionary is not an encyclopedia[संपादन]

See also Wiktionary is not an encyclopaedia.

Care should be taken so that entries do not become encyclopedic in nature; if this happens, such content should be moved to Wikipedia, but the dictionary entry itself should be kept.

Wiktionary articles are about words, not about people or places. Many places, and some people, are known by single word names that qualify for inclusion as given names or family names. The Wiktionary articles are about the words. Articles about the specific places and people belong in Wikipedia. For example: Wiktionary will give the etymologies, pronunciations, alternative spellings, and eponymous meanings, of the names Darlington, Hastings, David, Houdini, and Britney. But articles on the specific towns (Darlington, Hastings), statue (David), escapologist (Houdini), and pop singer (Britney) are Wikipedia's job.

Issues to consider[संपादन]

Attestation vs. the slippery slope[संपादन]

There is occasionally concern that adding an entry for a particular term will lead to entries for a large number of similar terms. This is not a problem, as each term is considered on its own based on its usage, not on the usage of terms similar in form. Some examples:

  • Any word in any language might be borrowed into English, but only a few actually are. Including spaghetti does not imply that ricordati is next (though it would of course be fine as an Italian entry).
  • Any word may be rendered in Pig Latin, but only a few (e.g., amscray) have found their way into common use.
  • Any word may be rendered in leet style, but only a few (e.g., pr0n) see general use.
  • Grammatical affixes like meta- and -ance can be added in a great many more cases than they actually are. (Some basic suffixes like plural -s and past tense -ed actually are used almost anywhere.)
  • It may seem that trendy internet prefixes like e- and i- are used everywhere, but they aren’t. If I decide to talk about e-thumb-twiddling but no one else does, then there’s no need for an entry.

Typographic variants[संपादन]

The inclusion of terms which contain unusual characters or are otherwise unusual in form, such as G-d, pr0n, i18n or veg*n is somewhat controversial. A few view some of these as bizarre or illiterate, notwithstanding their appearance in a variety of media, and find them to have no place in a respectable dictionary. This raises the question of what constitutes a respectable dictionary, and in any case tends to exclude terms that people might well run across and want to know the meaning of.


Names fall into two categories: individual given names and family names, which are single words, and the names of actual people, places, and things. Wiktionary classifies both as proper nouns, but applies caveats to each.

Given names and family names[संपादन]

Given names (such as David, Roger, and Peter) and family names (such as Baker, Bush, Rice, Smith, and Jones) are words, and subject to the same criteria for inclusion as any other words. Wiktionary has main articles giving etymologies, alternative spellings, meanings, and translations for given names and family names, and has two appendices for indexing those articles: Appendix:Names, Appendix:Surnames-A.

For most given names and family names, it is relatively easy to demonstrate that the word fulfils the criteria, as for most given names and family names the name words are in widespread use in both spoken communication and literature. However, being a name per se does not automatically qualify a word for inclusion. A new name, that has not been attested, is still a protologism. A name that occurs only in the works of fiction of a single author, a television series or a video game, or within a closed context such as the works of several authors writing about a single fictional universe is not used independently and should not be included.

Hypocoristics, diminutives, and abbreviations of names (such as Jock, Misha, Kenny, Ken, and Rog) are held to the same standards as names.

The status of patronymics has not been settled.

Names of actual people, places, and things[संपादन]

A name should be included if it is used attributively, with a widely understood meaning. For example: New York is included because “New York” is used attributively in phrases like “New York delicatessen”, to describe a particular sort of delicatessen. A person or place name that is not used attributively (and that is not a word that otherwise should be included) should not be included. Lower Hampton, Empire State Building, and George Walker Bush thus should not be included. Similarly, whilst Jefferson (an attested family name word with an etymology that Wiktionary can discuss) and Jeffersonian (an adjective) should be included, Thomas Jefferson (which isn’t used attributively) should not.

  • The policy on the inclusion of names is currently being reviewed and may be subject to change.

A name should be included if it has become a generic term. For example: Remington is used as a synonym for any sort of rifle, and Hoover as a synonym for any sort of vacuum cleaner. (Both are also attested family name words, and are included on that basis as well, of course.) Hamburger is used as generic term for a type of sandwich. One good rule of thumb as to whether a name has become a generic word is whether the word can be used without capitalization (as indeed “sandwich” was in the previous sentence).

Being a trademark or a company name does not guarantee inclusion. (Of course, some company names are derived from family names, and are included on that basis.) Although some words are trademarks and company names, not all trademarks and company names are words. (Indeed, trademark holders will vigorously defend their trademarks against becoming words. According to Adobe Systems, there is no such word as Photoshopped, since Photoshop® is a trademark and not a common verb that can have a past participle; according to Xerox there is no such word as xerox, since Xerox® is a trademark and not a common verb; according to Sony there is no such word as Playstationize since there’s no word Playstation at all and PlayStation® is a trademark and not a common verb.) Many trademarks and company names are deliberately protologisms. To be included, the use of a trademark or company name other than its use as a trademark (i.e., a use as a common word) has to be attested.

  • The policy on the inclusion of names is currently being reviewed and may be subject to change.

What Wiktionary is not with respect to names[संपादन]

Wiktionary is not a genealogy database. Wiktionary articles on family names, for example, are not intended to be about the people who share the family name. They are about the name as a word. For example: Whilst Yoder will tell the reader that the word originated in Switzerland (as well as give its pronunciations and alternative spellings), it is not intended to include information about the ancestries of people who have the family name Yoder.